There are four areas where house fires usually start: In the kitchen, near the stove or other electrical appliances; where chemicals are stored; in places where smoking materials have not been properly disposed of; or near overcrowded electrical outlets.
Firefighters say power and extension cords can often fray leaving them vulnerable to overheating. They say it's a good idea not to put wires in areas where they could be walked on.
"If you have extension cords that are lying underneath rugs," said Deputy Chief Jay Gordon for example, "underneath furniture, hanging in certain places, anything that exposes them to lighting on fire."
Firefighters say it's important to check power and extension cords as often as possible to make sure they are in good condition. And also to make sure smoke detectors are working properly.
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Smoke is responsible for three out of four deaths.
- Install smoke detectors on every level of your home and outside of sleeping areas.
- Test every detector at least once a month.
- Keep smoke detectors dust free. Replace batteries with new ones at least once a year, or sooner if the detector makes a chirping sound.
- If you have a smoke detector directly wired into your electrical system, be sure that the little signal light is blinking periodically. This tells you that the alarm is active.
- Smoke detectors are also available for the hearing and visually impaired.
Fire extinguishers remain your best bet if you're on the spot when a fire begins.
- Fire extinguishers should be mounted in the kitchen, garage and workshop.
- Purchase an ABC type extinguisher for extinguishing all types of fires.
- Learn how to use your fire extinguisher before there is an emergency.
- Use an extinguisher on small fires only. If there is a large fire, get out immediately and call 911 from another location.
Thinking Ahead: Your Exit Plan
As with other things, the best motto is, "Be Prepared."
- Prepare a floor plan of your home showing at least two ways out of each room.
- Sleep with your bedroom door closed. In the event of fire, it helps to hold back heat and smoke. If a door feels hot, do not open it; escape through another door or window.
- Easy-to-use window escape ladders are available through many catalogues and outlet stores.
- Agree on a fixed location out-of-doors where family members are to gather for a head count.
- Stay together away from the fire. Call 911 from another location. Make certain that no one goes back inside the burning building.
- Check corridors and stairways to make sure they are free of obstructions and combustibles.
- To help cut down on the need for an emergency exit in the first place, clear all unnecessary items from the attic, basement, garage and closets.
With a fireplace, you're deliberately bringing fire into your home; respect it.
- Use a fireplace screen to prevent sparks from flying.
- Don't store newspapers, kindling or matches near the fireplace or have an exposed rug or wooden floor right in front of the fireplace.
- Have your chimney inspected by a professional prior to the start of every heating season and cleaned to remove combustible creosote build-up if necessary.
- Install a chimney spark arrester to prevent roof fires.
- When lighting a gas fireplace, strike your match first, then turn on the gas.
Used improperly, a space heater can be the most dangerous appliance in your house.
- Install and maintain heating equipment correctly. Have your furnace inspected by a professional prior to the start of every heating season.
- Don't store newspapers, rags or other combustible materials near a furnace, hot water heater, space heater, etc.
- Don't leave space heaters operating when you're not in the room.
- Keep space heaters at least three feet away from anything that might burn, including the wall.
- Don't use extension cords with electrical space heaters. The high amount of current they require could melt the cord and start a fire.
- When lighting a gas space heater, strike your match first, then turn on the gas.
- Never use a gas range as a substitute for a furnace or space heater.
- Under some circumstances, dangerous heat can build up in a dryer.
- Never leave home with the clothes dryer running.
- Dryers must be vented to the outside, not into a wall or attic.
- Clean the lint screen frequently to keep the airway clear.
- Never put in synthetic fabrics, plastic, rubber or foam because they retain heat.
Electricity, the silent servant, can become a silent assassin.
- It is better not to use extension cords. If you feel you must use one, make sure that it is not frayed or worn. Do not run it under a rug or twist it around a nail or hook.
- Never overload a socket. In particular, the use of "octopus" outlets, outlet extensions that accommodate several plugs, is strongly discouraged.
- Do not use light bulb wattage which is too high for the fixture. Look for the label inside each fixture that tells the maximum wattage.
- Check periodically for loose wall receptacles, loose wires or loose lighting fixtures. Sparking means that you've waited too long.
- Allow air space around the TV to prevent overheating. The same applies to plug-in radios and stereo sets, and to powerful lamps.
- If a circuit breaker trips or a fuse blows frequently, immediately cut down on the number of appliances on that line.
- Be sure all electrical equipment bears the Underwriters Laboratories (UL) label.
- In many older homes, the capacity of the wiring system has not kept pace with today's modern appliances. Overloaded electrical systems invite fire. Watch for these overload signals: dimming lights when an appliance goes on, a shrinking TV picture, slow heating appliances or fuses blowing frequently. Call a qualified electrician to get expert help.
Careless cooking is the number one cause of residential fires.
- Never leave cooking unattended.
- Have a fire extinguisher near the kitchen. Keep it 10 feet away from the stove on the exit side of the kitchen.
- Never pour water on a grease fire; turn off the stove and cover the pan with a lid, or close the oven door.
- Keep pot handles on the stove pointing to the back, and always watch young children in the kitchen.
- Don't store items on the stove top, as they could catch fire.
- Keep kitchen appliances clean and in good condition, and turn them off and disconnect them when not in use.
- Don't overload kitchen electrical outlets and don't use appliances with frayed or cracked wires.
- Wear tight-fitting clothing when you cook. Here's why: An electrical coil on the stove reaches a temperature of 800°. A gas flame goes over 1,000°. Your dishtowel or potholder can catch fire at 400°. So can your bathrobe, apron or loose sleeve.
- Be sure your stove is not located under a window in which curtains are hanging.
- Clean the exhaust hood and duct over the stove regularly and wipe up spilled grease as soon as the surface of the stove is cool.
- Operate your microwave only when there is food in it.
One-fourth of all fire-deaths of children are from fires started by children.
- Keep lighters and matches out of the reach of children.
- Never leave children unattended with fire or space heaters.
- Children are naturally curious about fire, so keep an eye on them. But if a child repeatedly plays with fire or seems to have a morbid fascination with fire, seek professional help at once.
- If youngsters live with you or stay overnight occasionally, be sure that they know how to escape from every room and are part of your emergency exit plan.
Gasoline and Other Flammable Liquids
Those cans aren't painted red just for the fun of it.
- Flammable liquids should be stored only in approved safety containers, and the containers should be kept outside the house and garage in a separate storage shed.
- Gas up lawn equipment and snow throwers outside, away from enclosed areas and any source of sparks or heat.
- Start the equipment 10 feet from where you filled it with fuel.
- Don't fill a hot lawn mower, snow thrower, or other motor; let it cool first.
- Never clean floors or do other general cleaning with gasoline or flammable liquids.
- Never smoke in bed.
- Don't smoke when you are drinking alcohol or are abnormally tired.
- Use large, deep ashtrays, and empty them frequently.
- Never dump an ashtray into the trash without wetting the butts and ashes first.
Source: http://seniors.tcnet.org/articles/article04.html contributed to this report.