Distribution Map

Chronology of previous Ebola virus disease outbreaks

Year Country Ebolavirus species Cases Deaths Case fatality
2012 Democratic Republic of Congo Bundibugyo 57 29 51%
2012 Uganda Sudan 7 4 57%
2012 Uganda Sudan 24 17 71%
2011 Uganda Sudan 1 1 100%
2008 Democratic Republic of Congo Zaire 32 14 44%
2007 Uganda Bundibugyo 149 37 25%
2007 Democratic Republic of Congo Zaire 264 187 71%
2005 Congo Zaire 12 10 83%
2004 Sudan Sudan 17 7 41%
2003 (Nov-Dec) Congo Zaire 35 29 83%
2003 (Jan-Apr) Congo Zaire 143 128 90%
2001-2002 Congo Zaire 59 44 75%
2001-2002 Gabon Zaire 65 53 82%
2000 Uganda Sudan 425 224 53%
1996 South Africa (ex-Gabon) Zaire 1 1 100%
1996 (Jul-Dec) Gabon Zaire 60 45 75%
1996 (Jan-Apr) Gabon Zaire 31 21 68%
1995 Democratic Republic of Congo Zaire 315 254 81%
1994 Cote d'Ivoire Taï Forest 1 0 0%
1994 Gabon Zaire 52 31 60%
1979 Sudan Sudan 34 22 65%
1977 Democratic Republic of Congo Zaire 1 1 100%
1976 Sudan Sudan 284 151 53%
1976 Democratic Republic of Congo Zaire 318 280 88%
Information courtesy of World Health Organization

Source: cdc.gov

Ebola Outbreaks

Ebola was first recognized in 1976 as the cause of twin outbreaks of disease near the Ebola River in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (then known as Zaire) and in a region of Sudan. Some 300 people in each country became infected. The mortality rate was 88 percent in Zaire and 53 percent in Sudan (the Zaire subtype is the most deadly). Although the circumstances of the original human infections are not known, the disease spread through close direct contact and as a result of unsafe and unsanitary hospital practices, such as the use of contaminated needles and the lack of sufficient containment measures.

Sporadic and smaller outbreaks have erupted over the succeeding years in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gabon, Uganda, and Sudan.

The latest outbreak of EVD has surpassed previous outbreaks to become the most deadly to date, with over 600 deaths and climbing. As of July 2014, it still has not been contained.

Source: www.bcm.edu

Alternative Names

Ebola virus infection; Viral hemorrhagic fever
Source: nih.gov

Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever

Click Here for More Information about Ebola Including:

  • About Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever
  • Transmission
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention

Signs and Symptoms

Symptoms of Ebola HF typically include:
  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Joint and muscle aches
  • Weakness
  • Diarrhea
  • Vomiting
  • Stomach pain
  • Lack of appetite

Some patients may experience:

  • A Rash
  • Red Eyes
  • Hiccups
  • Cough
  • Sore throat
  • Chest pain
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Bleeding inside and outside of the body
Symptoms may appear anywhere from 2 to 21 days after exposure to ebolavirus though 8-10 days is most common.

Some who become sick with Ebola HF are able to recover, while others do not. The reasons behind this are not yet fully understood. However, it is known that patients who die usually have not developed a significant immune response to the virus at the time of death.

Source: cdc.gov

Outlook (Prognosis)

As many as 90% of patients die from the disease. Patients usually die from low blood pressure (shock) rather than from blood loss.

Possible Complications

Survivors may have unusual problems, such as hair loss and sensory changes

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call your health care provider if you have traveled to Africa (or if you know you have been exposed to Ebola fever) and you develop symptoms of the disorder. Early diagnosis and treatment may improve the chances of survival.
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